Rice cooking is radically rethought to optimize Asi removal. It is demonstrated that percolating technology, where cooking water, either free off, or low in, Asi is continually passed through rice destoner in a constant flow, is highly efficient at removing Asi. This cooking water percolation potentially maximizes the removal of Asi, by both enhancing the volume of water the rice comes into contact with and by physically removing Asi leached from the rice.
A number of variations on percolation technology are trialed; one where the water percolated through the rice is recycled through distillation; and one where the perfused water is discarded. The former is suitable where cooking water is itself elevated in Asi and/or where water is scarce or needs conserved, and the later suitable for low Asi water sources. The proposed technology can be low-tech and to demonstrate this in a domestic setting an off-the-shelf coffee percolator was used to remove Asi from wholemeal and polished rice.
A destoner is a machine that removes stones and clods from soil ridges and moves them to the furrow so that the ridges are free from stones. This also helps when harvesting in wet conditions as the harvester can drive on a row of stones which helps improve traction. They remove stone using a series of webs (between two and five webs). The stones stay on the web and the clay falls through it. The stones travel through the machine and the bigger stones fall into a boulder box and the smaller stones fall onto a cross conveyor and in turn fall into a trench. On the next pass the tractor tramps these stones down. Destoners are usually fitted with steerable wheels which makes them more maneuverable on headlands. Some are fitted with hydraulic leveling.
The brown rice runs through paddy cleaner that remove the outer bran layers from the grain. With the grains pressed against the inner wall of the machine and a spinning core, the bran layers are rubbed off. The core and inner wall move closer for the second hulling, ensuring removal of all bran layers. The smooth white rice is conveyed to a brewer's reel, where over a wire mesh screen broken kernels are sifted out. Oftentimes, the polished white rice is then coated with glucose to increase luster.
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