The Flotation Equipment can be used on sulphide, oxide or silicate minerals, and is particularly suited to high-yield flotation circuits, such as graphite recovery. Currently, continuous operation sf flotation machine plants are available for small scale operations up to 1tph, and laboratory tests on bench scale unit cells are also available.
The use of high volume flotation cells has nowadays become more and more common to deal with the production of high capacity, low-grade open pit mines, which are typically copper or gold mines. Implementation of large flotation cells in the mineral beneficiation process holds several financial benefits, but gives no guarantee of an equal or improved metallurgical performance.
From a historical point of view, flotation plants have been designed based on the results of laboratory tests, multiplied with a time up-scaling factor at which recovery was expected to be above a certain value on the industrial scale. Due to the uniqueness of each ore, such an experience-based factor has often resulted into under- or overestimations of the total required cell volume. The effectiveness of the low-turbulent zone in the top half of the industrial flotation cell is questioned, while the general trend in flotation cell design of increasing volume even shows an increasing height-to-diameter ratio, which could eventually lead to a larger fraction of the cell volume being low turbulent.
Vacuum flotation is accomplished by first subjecting the solution to be treated to a period of atmospheric aeration and then applying a vacuum that promotes the precipitation of air from solution. In promotes the precipitation of air from solution. In the process of pressure flotation, gas is contacted at an elevated pressure with the solution to be treated and is precipitated from solution by an instantaneous reduction in system pressure.
Flotation machines are designed to specifically maximize metallurgical performance at minimum cost. When the machine regresses from this optimal condition, metallurgical performance suffers and operating costs increase. This may be attributed to not fully understanding (or isolating) the effect of equipment degradation on the overall plant performance.
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