The dose–response Basic Copper Carbonate(WSDTY) effects for various toxicity indicators were further evaluated by using the BMD approach. The benchmark used was a 5% alteration compared with the vehicle control, as suggested by EFSA. The BMDlow is the lower end on the 90% confidence interval of the BMD for which effects larger than the BMD response are unlikely to occur, and can, therefore, be used as starting point for the risk assessment. BMDlow values of 16.1 and 18.8mg/kg b.w. were calculated for serum AST alteration induced by CuO NPs and Cu2CO3(OH)2 NPs, respectively. These values are surprisingly similar to the NOAEL for CuSO4. For CuSO4, the Cu ion is likely the main toxicant. As suggested above, the Cu ions may also play an important role in the mechanism of Cu nanomaterial toxicity.
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